Tuesday, May 16, 2006


Hominidae are great apes that include human, chimpanzee, gorillas and orangutans. Originally the group was restricted to human and their extinct relative. However the classification was revised. Chimpanzees, gorillas and human are closely related species and orangutans are slightly less close phylogetically.

Humans are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian. Humans have a highly developed brain capable of abstract reasoning, language and introspection. Human are social by nature. Human are particularly adapt to utilizing system of communication such as language for self expression and exchange ideas. Social structure of human consists of cooperating and competing groups. Human are also inborn appreciation for enjoyment, beauty and aesthetic which combined with a human desire for self expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, literature and music.

Humans need to understand and influence the world around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through science, religion, philosophy and mythology. This natural curiosity has lead to the development of advanced skills and tools; human are only species that is able to make fire, cook their own food, exploration of spiritual concepts such as the soul and deities.

Gorillas are the largest primates. Gorilla are divided into species and either four or five subspecies, with 92-98% of its DNA being similar to that of human. Gorillas are the second closest relative of human after two chimpanzee species. Gorillas are knuckle walkers. The height of adult males ranges between 1.65mto 1.75m and in weight from 140 kilogram to 165kg. Gorillas are covered with brown hair in most of their body. They have a large head with a bulging forehead, tiny ears, and small dark to brown eyes. They exhort extreme sexual dimorphism, males being more twice than size of females. Gorillas live in open canopy place in order for them to access vegetation. Gorilla eats vegetation such as leaves, fruits, shoots and stems. Gorilla social system is usually composed of single adult male with many females. In general, female are not generally related to each other, their only link is that they like the same guy.

They are the only species which are existing species in the genus Pongo and family poningae. The majority of Orangutans are arboreal; this is clearly shown by anatomically in the structure of their hips and shoulders. Although they have mobile joints but they can not swing like gibbons. It is more like the climb around with hand Orangutans are too heavy to fling themselves. Sometimes they get down and walk from one tree to another. Orangutans also exhibit size of dimorphism. When they reach adulthood, males throat sacs and face flanges. Adult males are approximately 1.4m tall and up 82kg in weight. They are spending nearly all of their time on the trees, making a nest in the trees every night. Orangutans are really endangered. They are found in Sumutra and little on Borneo. Orangutans are also fruit eaters and they move slowly. Orangutans may move few hundred meters per a day. However, they can able cover many territories in a year. Orangutans have little social organization. Sometimes female will copulate with immature males who do not have secondary sex characteristics. Sometimes young males rape females which are unusually in primates other than human.

Chimpanzees (chimps) are knuckle-walkers, and are terrestrial. The majority of primates walk on the flat on their hands, but chimps walk on their knuckles with their hand turned over. The forearms are longer than the hind limbs, and the bonobo has a short thumb. The average mass for an adult male bonobo is approximately thirsty nine kilogram whereas the females are approximately thirty kilograms. They are covered with black hair on most of their body. Chimp exhibit less size dimorphism than other apes, the female’s prominent genital swelling when they are in estrus. Chimps have quite big testicle relative to size especially compared to gorilla. Chimps found a little in western Africa and across the Equatorial belt in mid-Africa. Chimps are mostly eat fruit but they also eat termites, ants, flowers, seeds, shoots, leaves, bark and shrub level forest. Male tend to hunt. They will eat monkeys, antelopes, pig and anything catches able. They are usually hunted in groups. Most of the grooming bouts and instances of food sharing occur between males and females. In chimps females to female relationships is strong.


Wikepedia Contributors. Human, Free Encyclopaedia [Internet] 2006 May 10, Cited on 2006 May 11, 10:12 UTC, Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/chimpanzee

Wikepedia Contributors. Gorillas, Free Encyclopaedia [Internet] 2006 May 10, Cited on 2006 May 11, 12:45 UTC, Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorillas

Wikepedia Contributors. Human, Free Encyclopaedia [Internet] 2006 May 10, Cited on 2006 May 11, 13:30 UTC, Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human

Wikepedia Contributors. Orangutans, Free Encyclopaedia [Internet] 2006 May 10, Cited on 2006 May 11, 14:17 UTC, Available from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orungtans
Masiya Kedibone
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